19 December 2009
A CIMAC Circle meeting titled “Life-Cycle Costs—the Impact of Fuel and Emissions” was held at the Marintec trade show in Shanghai on December 3, 2009. With the participation of full spectrum of stakeholders, the forum discussed the present and predicted costs of engine ownership in view of tightening marine emissions legislation.
The CIMAC Circle took place for the third time in China. As noted in the opening speech by Yasuhiro Itoh (Niigata Power Systems), the Circle is an ideal way of interchanging knowledge and experience between the fastest growing ship and engine building nations and the longer established centers of engine technology.
For the engine industry, Kjeld Aabo (MAN Diesel) and Mikael Troberg (Wärtsilä) reported on the technologies that are being develop to meet the IMO Tier III emission standards to be applicable in IMO Emission Control Areas. To attain the required 80% NOx reduction relative to the IMO Tier I, a combinations of technologies would be needed, including EGR, Miller cycle in combination with high pressure turbocharging, air and fuel conditioning (fuel water emulsion, direct water injection, charge air humidification) and aftertreatment (SCR, SOx scrubbing). Low emissions hybrid propulsion systems are also feasible for some applications.
On behalf of the oil and gas industries, Jerry Hammett (Shell Global Solutions) discussed the means of eliminating SOx emissions, focusing on the choice of low sulfur heavy fuels versus distillates and refining versus scrubbing as methods of SOx abatement. Importantly, he put the emission issue into the context of global fuel supply and demand, which will be dominated by increasing demand for finite resources.
Allan Wang (ABB Jiangjin Turbo Systems) reported on single and 2-stage high pressure turbocharging as an enabling technology of the strong Miller cycle which could be instrumental in meeting IMO Tier III NOx limits using only in-cylinder measures. Significantly, this technology can control NOx without fuel consumption penalties and can lead to an increase in engine power density.
Speaking for engine research establishments in the fastest growing market for engines, Prof. Donghan Jin (Shanghai Marine Diesel Engine Research Institute) described the impact of new emissions regulations on related industries in China. He outlined the challenges facing China as its economy continues to grow at a rapid pace and proposed countermeasures needed in the ship and engine building sectors.
For marine end users Oyvind Toft (BW Fleet Management) stressed the overwhelming importance of fuel costs to the shipping industry and the need for emissions reduction methods to be economically viable, practical and easy to understand. Ideally, equipment should be robust and easy to use, while emissions compliance requirements should be simple and avoid bureaucracy.
Presentations from the Circle can be downloaded from the CIMAC Events page.