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DieselNet Technical Report

March 2002

Diesel Emissions Reference List: Health Effects, Measurement and Control

Compiled By: Win Watts and Erin E. Ische
University of Minnesota, Center For Diesel Research

Health And Exposure
Aerosol Sampling and Measurement
Mining
Ultrafine and Nanoparticle
Instrumentation
Emission Control Technology
Other

Note about this list - The papers included in this list cover Diesel related issues defined in a very broad sense. Initially, the list included mostly mining related industrial hygiene papers covering diesel aerosol sampling, health effects and emission control. However, the list has expanded over the years with the improvement in aerosol measurement techniques, changes in research direction and the heightened interest in nanoparticles. It is not a comprehensive list, but it may assist those who are beginning a literature search.

Health And Exposure Related References

ACGIH. 2001. 2001 TLVs and BEIs Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices. Am. Conf. Gov. Ind. Hyg. 187pp.

Albert, R., et al. 1983. Comparative Potency Method for Cancer Risk Assessment to Diesel Particulate Emissions. Risk Analysis. 3(2): 101-117.

Andersen, M. 1988. Quantitative Risk Assessment and Occupational Carcinogens. Appl. Ind. Hyg. 3(10): 267-273.

Anderson, H. R. 2000. Differential Epidemiology of Ambient Aerosols. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A. 358: 2771- 2785.

Bakke, B., et al. 2001. Dust and Gas Exposure in Tunnel Construction Work. AIHAJ. 62: 457-465.

Bates, D. B., B. R. Fish, T. F. Hatch, et al. 1966. Deposition and Retention Models for Internal Dosimetry of the Human Respiratory Tract (Report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection: ICRP: Task Group on Lung Dynamics). Health Phys. 12(2): 173-207.

Bhatia, R., et al. 1998. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Lung Cancer. Epidemiology. 9(1): 85-91.

Boffetta, P., et al. 1989. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Lung Cancer Risk. Exp. Pathol. 37: 32-38.

Boffetta, P. and D. Silverman. 2001. A Meta-Analysis of Bladder Cancer and Diesel Exhaust Exposure. Epidemiology. 12(1): 125-130.

Borja-Aburto, V. H., et al. 1998. Mortality and Ambient Fine Particles in Southwest Mexico City, 1993-1995. Environ. Health Perspectives. 106(12): 849-855.

Brauer, M., et al. 2001. Air Pollution and Retained Particles in the Lung. Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(10): 1039-1044.

Bruske-Hohlfeld, I., et al. 1999. Lung Cancer Risk in Male Workers Occupationally Exposed to Diesel Motor Emissions in Germany. Am. J. of Ind. Med. 36: 405-414.

Budiansky, S. 1980. The Risky Business of Assessing Risk. Env. Sci. Tech. 14(11): 1281-1282.

Bunger, J., et al. 1998. Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Exhaust Particulate Matter of Biodiesel Compared to Fossil Diesel Fuel. Mutation Research. 415: 13-23.

Bunger, J., et al. 2000. Cytotoxic and Mutagenic Effects, Particle Size and Concentration Analysis of Diesel Engine Emissions Using Biodiesel and Petrol Diesel as Fuel. Arch. Toxicol. 74: 490-498.

Bunger, J., et al. 2000. Mutagenicity of Diesel Exhaust Particles From Two Fossil and Two Plant Oil Fuels. Mutagenesis. 15(5): 391-397.

Bunger, J., et al. 2000. Mutation Research. Mutation Research. 415: 13-23.

Butler, J. P., et al. 1993. Assessment of Carcinogenic Risk from Personal Exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES). J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 43: 970-977.

Calabrese, E. J. 1987. Animal Extrapolation: A Look Inside the Toxicologist's Black Box. Env. Sci. Tech. 21(7): 618-623.

California Environmental Protection Agency, C. 1998. Health Risk Assessment for Diesel Exhaust. Public and Scientific Review Panel Review Draft. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.

Cantrell, B. K. and W. F. Watts. 1997. Diesel Exhaust Aerosol: Review of Occupational Exposure. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 12: 1019-1027.

Cheng, Y. S., C.H. Yeh, J.L. Mauderly and B. V. Mokler. 1984. Characterization of Diesel Exhaust in a Chronic Inhalation Study. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 45: 547-555.

Cohen, A. J. 2000. Outdoor Air Pollution and Lung Cancer. Environ. Health Perspectives. 108(Suppl. 4): 743-750.

Cohen, A. J. and K. Nikula. 1999. The Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust: Laboratory and Epidemiologic Studies. In: Air Pollution and Health, Academic Press.

Cohen, S. M., et al. 2000. Epidemiology and Etiology of Premalignant and Malignant Urothelial Changes. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. Suppl. 205: 105-115.

Crump, K. S. 1999. Lung Cancer Mortality and Diesel Exhaust: Reanalysis of a Retrospective Cohort Study of U.S. Railroad Workers. Inhalation Toxicology. 11: 1-17.

Cuddihy, R. G., et al. 1983. Evaluating Lung Cancer Risks from Exposures to Diesel Engine Exhaust. Risk Analy. 3(2): 119-124.

Cuddihy, R. G., et al. 1984. Health Risks from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles. Env. Sci. Tech. 18(1): 14A-21A.

DFG. 1993. List of MAK and BAT Values 1993, Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area Report No. 29. New York, NY, VCH Publishers.

Dockery, D. W., C. A. Pope III, X. Xu, et al. 1993. An Association Between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities. New Eng. J. Med. 329(24): 1753-1759.

Donaldson, K., et al. 1996. Free Radical Activity Associated with the Surface of Particles: A Unifying Factor in Determining Biological Activity? Toxicology Letters. 88: 293-298.

Donaldson, K., et al. 2000. Mechanisms of Lung Injury. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A. 358: 2741-2749.

Donaldson, K., et al. 2001. Ambient Particle Inhalation and the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms. Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(Suppl. 4): 523-528.

English, P., et al. 1999. Examining Associations Between Childhood Asthma and Traffic Flow Using a Geographic Information System. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(9): 761-767.

Enya, T., et al. 1997. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone, a Powerful Bacterial Mutagen and Suspected Human Carcinogen Found in Diesel Exhaust and Airborne Particulates. Environ. Sci. Tech. 31: 2772-2776.

EPA. 1998. Health Assessment Document for Diesel Emission. SAB Review Draft. Office of Research and Development. EPA/600/8-90/057C.

EPA. 2000. Health Assessment Document for Diesel Emission. Review Draft. National Center for Environmental Assessment. EPA/600/8-90/057E.

Etzel, R. A. 1999. Air Pollution and Bronchitic Symptoms in Southern California Children with Asthma. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(9): 691.

Fowler, D. P. 1985. Industrial Hygiene/Environmental Sampling Program to Develop Qualitative and Quantitative Data on Diesel Exhaust Emission Exposure. Final Report on CRC-APRAC Project No. CAPM-24-78.

Frampton, M. 2001. Systemic and Cardiovascular Effects of Airway Injury and Inflammation: Ultrafine Particle Exposure in Humans. Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(Suppl. 4): 529-532.

Gavin, W. P. 1992. Railroad Diesel Exhaust and Lung Cancer. Trial. 28(11): 60-63.

Godleski, J. J., et al. 2000. Mechanisms of Morbidity and Mortality from Exposure to Ambient Air Particles. Health Effects Institute. 91pp.

Groves, J. and J. Cain. 2000. A Survey of Exposure to Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the Workplace. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 44(6): 435-447.

HEI. 1995. A Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Working Group. Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA. April. 294pp.

HEI. 1999. The Health Effects of Fine Particles: Key Questions and the 2003 Review. Joint Meeting of the EC and the HEI, Brussels, Belgium. October/November 1999.

HEI. 2001. Evaluation of Human Health Risk from Cerium Added to Diesel Fuel. Health Effects Institute. pp. 1-57.

Heymann, C. 1995. Verfahren zur Bestimmung von Kohlenstoff im Feinstaub - anwendbar fur Partikelfoermige Dieselmotor-Emissionen in Arbeitsbereichen. Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Cologne (In German). This is the coulometric procedure official method.

IARC. 1989. IARC Monograph on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans - Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts and Some Nitroarenes. Lyon, France, IARC.

Jakab, G. J., et al. 1992. Use of Physical Chemistry and In Vivo Exposure to Investigate the Toxicity of Formaldehyde to Carbonaceous Particles in the Murine Lung. Health Effects Institute. Report No. 53.

Johnston, C. J., et al. 2000. Pulmonary Effects Induced by Ultrafine PTFE Particles. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 168: 208-215.

Kent, M. S., et al. 2001. Is Total Mass or Mass of Alveolar-Deposited Airborne Particles of Beryllium a Better Predictor of the Prevalence of Disease? A Preliminary Study of a Berryllium Processing Facility. Appl. Ind. Hyg. 16(5): 539-558.

Kim, C. S. and P. A. Jaques. 2000. Respiratory Dose of Inhaled Ultrafine Particles in Healthy Adults. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A. 358: 2693-2705.

Kittelson, D. B., et al. 2002. Exposures to Diesel Exhaust Aerosol. Health Effects Institute Report (In press).

Liao, D., et al. 1999. Daily Variation of Particulate Air Pollution and Poor Cardiac Autonomic Control in the Elderly. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(7): 521-525.

Lippmann, M. 2001. Chapter 5 Size-Selective Health Hazard Sampling. In: Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. B. S. Cohen and C. S. McCammon. Cincinnati, OH, ACGIH: pp. 93-134.

Lippmann, M., et al. 2000. Association of Particulate Matter Components with Daily Mortality and Morbidity in Urban Populations. Report No. 95.

Mauderly, J. M. 1992. Diesel Exhaust. In: Environmental Toxicants-Human Exposures and their Health Effects. M. Lippman. New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

McAughey, J. J., et al. 1997. Regional Lung Deposition and Dose of Ambient Particulate in Humans by Particle Mass and Number. AEA Technology, Aerosol Science Centre.

McCawley, M. A. 1990. Should Dust Samples Mimic Human Lung Deposition? Counterpoint. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 5(12): 829-835.

McCawley, M. A., et al. 2001. Ultrafine Beryllium Number Concentration as a Possible Metric for Chronic Beryllium Disease Risk. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 16(5): 631-638.

McConnell, R., et al. 1999. Air Pollution and Bronchitic Symptoms in Southern California Children with Asthma. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(9): 757-760.

Mokler, B. V., et al. 1984. Diesel Exhaust Exposure System for Animals. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 4: 270-277.

Nauss, K. M., W. F. Busby, A. J. Cohen, et al. 1995. Critical Issues in Assessing the Carcinogenicity of Diesel Exhaust: A Synthesis of Current Knowledge. In: Diesel Exhaust: A Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects, Health Effects Institute: pp. 1-61.

Neumann, H. 2001. Health Risk of Combustion Products: Toxicological Considerations. Chemosphere. 42: 473-479.

NIOSH. 1988. Carcinogenic Effects of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust; Current Intelligence Bull. 50. Dep. Health and Hum. Serv. pp. 1-30.

Osunsanya, T., G. Preswcott and A. Seaton. 2001. Acute Respiratory Effects of Particles: Mass or Number? Occup. Environ. Med. 58: 154-159.

Pope III, C. A. 2000. Epidemiology of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Human Health Biologic Mechanisms and Who's at Risk? Environ. Health Perspectives. 108(Suppl. 4): 713-723.

Pope III, C. A. 2000. Invited Commentary: Particulate Matter-Mortality Exposure-Response Relations and Threshold. Am. J. Epidemiology. 152(5): 407.

Pope III, C. A., et al. 1995. Particulate Air Pollution as a Predictor of Mortality in a Prospective Study of U.S. Adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151: 669-674.

Pope III, C. A., et al. 1999. Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(7): 567-573.

Raabe, O. G. 1982. Deposition and Clearance of Inhaled Aerosols. In: Mechanisms in Respiratory Toxicology. H. Witschi and P. Nettesheim. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press. 1: 27-76.

Rudell, B., et al. 1999. Bronchoalveolar Inflammation After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust: Comparison Between Unfiltered and Particle Trap Filtered Exhaust. Occ. & Env. Medicine. 56(8): 527-534.

Sagai, M., et al. 2000. Lung Carcinogens by Diesel Exhaust Particles and the Carcinogenic Mechanism Via Active Oxygens. Inhalation Toxicology. 12(Suppl. 3): 215-223.

Samet, J. M., et al. 2000. The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part II: Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution in the United States. Health Effects Institute. Report No. 94.

Samet, J. M., et al. 2000. The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study Part I: Methods and Methodologic Issues. Health Effects Institute. Report No. 94.

Sarnat, J. A., et al. 2001. Gaseous Pollutants in Particulate Matter Epidemiology: Confounders or Surrogates? Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(10): 1053-1062.

Schwartz, J., et al. 1999. Episodes of High Coarse Particle Concentrations Are Not Associated with Increased Mortality. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(5): 339-342.

Schwartz, J., et al. 2001. The Concentration- Response Relation between Air Pollution and Daily Deaths. Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(10): 1001-1006.

Schwartz, J. and R. Morris. 1995. Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular Disease in Detroit, Michigan. Am. J. Epidemiology. 142(1): 23-35.

Seaton, A., et al. 1995. Particulate Air Pollution and Acute Health Effects: 1995. The Lancet. 345: 177pp. Silverman, D. 1998. Is Diesel Exhaust a Human Lung Carcinogen? Epidemiology. 9(1): 4-6.

Stayner, L., et al. 1998. Predicted Lung Cancer Risk Among Miners Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Particles. Am. J. of Ind. Med. 34: 207-219.

Steenland, K., et al. 1998. Diesel Exhaust and Lung Cancer in the Trucking Industry: Exposure-Response Analysis and Risk Assessment. Am. J. of Ind. Med. 34: 220-228.

Stober, W., et al. 1998. Revisiting Epidemiological Key Studies on Occupational Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Lung Cancer in Truck Drivers. Inhalation Toxicology. 10: 1045-1078.

Takenaka, S., et al. 2001. Pulmonary and Systemic Distribution of Inhaled Ultrafine Silver Particles in Rats. Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(Suppl. 4): 547-552.

Task Group on Lung Dynamics (D. V. Bates, B. R. F., T. F. Hatch, T. T. Mercer, P.E. Morrow (chairman)). 1966. Deposition and Retention Models for Internal Dosimetry of the Human Respiratory Tract. Report for the International Commission on Radiological Protection [ICRP]. Health Phys. 12: 173-207.

Utell, M. J., et al. 2000. Acute Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution: The Ultrafine Particle Hypothesis. J. Aerosol Med. 13(4): 355-359.

Utell, M. J. and M. W. Frampton. 2000. Toxicologic Methods: Controlled Human Exposures. Environ. Health Perspectives. 108(Suppl. 4): 605-613.

Valberg, P. A. and E. A. C. Crouch. 1999. Meta-Analysis of Rat Lung Tumors from Lifetime Inhalation of Diesel Exhaust. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(9): 693-699.

Valberg, P. A. and A. Y. Watson. 1999. Comparative Mutagenic Dose of Ambient Diesel Engine Exhaust. Inhalation Toxicology. 11: 215-228.

Vendal, S. 1997. Ambient Particles and Health: Lines that Divide. J. Air & Waste Management Assoc. 47: 551-581.

Watanabe, N. and M. Kurita. 2001. The Masculinization of the Fetus During Pregnancy Due to Inhalation of Diesel Exhaust. Environ. Health Perspectives. 109(2): 111-119.

Watanabe, N. and Y. Oonuki. 1999. Inhalation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Affects Spermatogenesis in Growing Male Rats. Environ. Health Perspectives. 107(7): 539-544.

Watts, W. F., et al. 1995. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Diesel Emissions. In: Diesel Exhaust: A Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. Cambridge, MA, Health Effects Institute: pp. 108-123.

Whittaker, L., et al. 1999. Employee Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in the Electric Utility Industry. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 60: 635-640.

WHO. 1996. Diesel Fuel and Exhaust Emissions. International Program on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 171, Prepared by members of the Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Aerosol Research, Germany, under the coordination of G. Rosner. WHO, Geneva Switzerland.

Winer, A. W. and W. F. Busby. 1995. Atmospheric Transport and Transformation of Diesel Emissions. In Diesel Exhaust: A Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. Health Effects Institute. pp. 83-106.

Zaebst, D. D., et al. 1991. Quantitative Determination of Trucking Industry Workers' Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 52(12): 529-541.

Aerosol Sampling and Measurement References

Abdul-Khalek, I. S., et al. 1998. Diesel Exhaust Particle Size: Measurement Issues and Trends. SAE Technical Paper Series. 980525. 13pp.

Abdul-Khalek, I. S. and D. B. Kittelson. 1995. Real Time Measurement of Volatile and Solid Exhaust Particles Using a Catalytic Stripper. SAE Technical Paper Series. 950236.

Abdul-Khalek, I. S., D. B. Kittelson and F. Brear. 1999. The Influence of Dilution Conditions on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distribution Measurements. SAE Technical Paper Series. 1999-01-1142.

Abu-Allaban, M., et al. 2001. Exhaust Particle Size Distribution Measurements at the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel. J. Aerosol Sci. pp. 1-51.

Aceves, M., et al. 1993. Seasonality Dependent Size Distributions of Aliphatic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Aerosols From Densely Populated Areas. Env. Sci. Tech. 27(13): 2896-2908.

Armalis, S. 1995. Measurements of Atmospheric Particulate Carbon in Lithuania. Water Air Soil Pol. 85(4): 1991-1996.

Baron, P. A. and W. A. Heitbrink. 1993. Factors Affecting Aerosol Measurement Quality. In: Aerosol Measurement Principles Techniques and Applications. New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Baron, P. A., M. K. Mazumder and Y. S. Cheng. 1993. Chapter 17 Direct Reading Techniques Using Optical Particle Detection. In: Aerosol Measurement Principles Techniques and Applications. New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold: pp. 381-409.

Barris, M. A. 1981. Mass Transfer Processes Affecting the Nature of Diesel Exhaust Aerosols. M. S. Thesis. Mechanical Engineering. Minneapolis, MN, University of Minnesota.

Beckmann, C., et al. 1989. Artifact Formation of Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During Diesel Soot Sampling on Teflon Coated Glass Fiber Filters. J. Aerosol Sci. 20(8): 1385-1388.

Birch, M. and R. Carey. 1996. Elemental Carbon-based Method for Occupational Monitoring of Particulate Diesel Exhaust: Methodology and Exposure Issues. Analyst. 121: 1183-1190.

Brown, J. E. and M. J. Clayton. 2000. Comparison of the Particle Size Distribution of Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Using a Dilution Tailpipe Sampler and an In-Plume Sampler during On-Road Operation. J. Air & Waste Management. 50: 1407-1416.

Burtscher, H. 1992. Measurements and Characteristics of Combustion Aerosols with Special Consideration of Photoelectric Charging and Charging by Flame Ions. J. Aerosol Sci. 23: 549-595.

Burtscher, H., et al. 1995. Structure of Particles in Combustion Engine Exhaust. J. Aerosol Sci. 26(Suppl. 1): S129-S130.

Burtscher, H., D. Matter and D. Steiner. 1993. Characterization of Soot Particles by In-Situ Measurement with Different Aerosol Analysis Tools. J. Aerosol Sci. 23: 65-67.

Burtscher, H. and H. C. Siegmann. 1993. Photoemission for In Situ Analysis of Particulate Combustion Emissions. Water Air Soil Pol. 68: 125-136.

Burtscher, H., S. Kunzel and C. Huglin. 1998. Characterization of Particles in Combustion Engine Exhaust. J. Aerosol Sci. 29(4): 389-396.

Cadle, S. H., et al. 1998. Measurement of Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from In-Use Light-Duty Motor Vehicles in the Denver, Colorado Area. Coordinating Research Council (CRC). 142pp.

Cadle, S. H., P. A. Mulawa, E. C. Hunsanger, et al. 1999. Composition of Light-Duty Motor Vehicle Exhaust Particulate Matter in the Denver, Colorado Area. Environmental Science and Technology. 33(14): 2328-2339.

Cadle, S. H. and R. D. Stephens. 1994. Remote Sensing of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions. Environmental Science Technology. 28(6): 258A-264A.

Cass, G. R. and H. A. Gray. 1995. Regional Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations of Diesel Engine Particulate Matter: Los Angeles as a Case Study. In: Diesel Exhaust: A Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Working Group, Health Effects Institute: pp. 124-137.

Chan, T., et al. 1981. Characteristics of Cascade Impactors in Size Determination of Diesel Particles. Atmos. Environ. 15(7): 1273-1279.

Chen, S., et al. 1997. Particle Size Distribution of PAHs in the Ambient Air of Southern Taiwan. J. Aerosol Sci. 28(Suppl. 1): S129-S130.

Chen, S. J., et al. 1996. Concentration, Phase Distribution, and Size Distribution of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls Measured in Southern Taiwan. Environment International. 22(4): 411-423.

Cheng, Y. S. 1993. Condensation Detection and Diffusion Size Separation Techniques. In: Aerosol Measurement. e. K. Willeke and P.A. Baron. New York, NY, Van Nostrand Rheinhold: pp.427-451.

Coburn, T. C. 2000. Statistical Analysis of On-road Particulate Matter Emissions from Diesel Vehicles. Inhalation Toxicology. 12(Suppl. 2): 23-33.

Cole, R. L., R. B. Poola and R. Sekar. 1998. Exhaust Emissions of a Vehicle with a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine. SAE Technical Paper Series. 982605.

Concawe. 1998. A Study of the Number, Size & Mass of Exhaust Particles Emitted from European Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Under Steady-state and European Driving Cycle Conditions. Prepared for CONCAWE Automotive Emissions Management Group by Special Task Force AE/STF-10: D. E. Hall Chairman, Brussels, Belgium. Concawe. 56pp.

Cooney, C. M. 1998. California Moves Ahead on Diesel Exhaust Study. Environ. Sci. Tech.: 250A.

Countess, R. J. 1990. Interlaboratory Analyses of Carbonaceous Aerosol Samples. Aerosol Sci. Tech. 12(1): 114-121.

Dahmann, D., et al. 1996. Diesel Engine Emissions in Work Place Atmospheres in Germany. Occ. Hyg. 3(4): 255-262.

Da-Tong, N., et al. 1996. Aerosol Size Distribution and Elemental Composition in Urban Areas of Northern China. Atmos. Environ. 30(13): 2355-2362.

Degobert, P. 1988. Emissions Diesel, Aspects Physico-Chimiques. Sur la Recherche en Mati??re de Pollution Atmospheriqe, Strasbourg. March 22-25. 13pp.

Dickens, C. J., et al. 1997. Evaluation of Instruments for Vehicle Emission Particle Sizing. AEA Technology Report. AEAT-1180. 69pp.

Dolan, D. F., D. B. Kittelson and D. Y. H. Pui. 1980. Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distribution Measurement Techniques. SAE Technical Paper Series. 800187. 16pp.

Dolan, D. F., et al. 1975. Measurement of Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 75-WA/APC-5.

Dolan, D. F. and D. B. Kittelson. 1979. Roadway Measurements on Diesel Exhaust Aerosols. SAE Technical Paper Series. 790492. 9pp.

Durbin, T., J. Collins, J. Norbeck and M. Smith. 2000. Effects of Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and a Synthetic Diesel on Emissions from Light Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles. Env. Sci. Tech. 34(3): 349-355.

Durbin, T., J. Norbeck, R. Wilson and H. Galdamez. 2000. Effect of Payload on Exhaust Emissions from Light Heavy-Duty Diesel and Gasoline Trucks. Env. Sci. Tech. 34: 4708-4713.

Engeljehringer, K., et al. 1989. The Organic Insoluble Diesel Exhaust Particulates- Differences Betwen Diluted and Undiluted Measurements. J. Aerosol Sci. 20(8): 1377-1380.

Ford, I., et al. 1995. Aerosol Formation in Aircraft Exhaust Plumes. J. Aerosol Sci. 26(Suppl. 1): S155-S156.

Gaggeler, H. W., et al. 1989. Applications of the Epiphaniometer to Environmental Aerosol Studies. J. Aerosol Sci. 20(8): 1225-1228.

Gangal, M. K. and E. D. Dainty. 1993. Ambient Measurement of Diesel Particulate Matter and Respirable Combustible Dust in Canadian Mines. Proceedings of the 6th US Mine Ventilation Symposium, Salt Lake City, UT., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. pp. 83-89.

Gard, E., et al. 1997. Real-time Analysis of Individual Atmospheric Aerosol Particles: Design and Performance of a Portable ATOFMS. Anal. Chem. 69(20): 4083-4091.

Gillette, A. 1983. Measurements and Analysis of the Particulate Emission from a Direct Injection Diesel. Part. Sci. Technol. 1: 77-90.

Graskow, B., et al. 1998. Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine. SAE Technical Paper Series. 980528. 10pp.

Greenwood, S. J., et al. 1996. An Investigation to Determine the Exhaust Particulate Size Distributions for Diesel, Petrol, and Compressed Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles. SAE Technical Paper Series. 961085.

Groblicki, P. J. and C. R. Begeman. 1979. Particle Size Variation in Diesel Car Exhaust. SAE Technical Paper Series. 790421.

Gross, G., et al. 1982. Informational Report on the Measurement of Diesel Particulate Emissions. CRC-APRAC. Project No. CAPI-1-64.

Haidar, H. A. and J. B. Heywood. 1997. Combustion Chamber Deposit Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignition Engine. International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, Tulsa, Oklahoma. October 13-16, 1997. 27-40.

Hall, D. E. and C. J. Dickens. 1999. Measurement of the Number and Size Distribution of Particles Emitted from a Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle. SAE Technical Paper Series. 1999-01-3530. 11pp.

Hall, D. E. and C. J. Dickens. 2000. Measurement of the Numbers of Emitted Gasoline Particles: Genuine or Artifact? SAE Technical Paper Series. 2000-01-2957. 9pp.

Hall, D. E., et al. 1998. A Study of the Number, Size & Mass of Exhaust Particles Emitted from European Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Under Steady-state and European Driving Cycle Conditions. CONCAWE Automotive Emissions Management Group Special Task Force AE/STF-10. 98/51. 56pp.

Hall, D. E., et al. 1998. A Study of the Size, Number and Mass Distribution of the Automotive Particulate Emissions from European Light Duty Vehicles. SAE Technical Paper Series. 982600. 8pp.

Hammerle, R. H., et al. 1994. Emissions from Current Diesel Vehicles. SAE Technical Paper Series. 942043.

Hammerle, R. H., et al. 1995. Emissions from Current Diesel Vehicles with and without Lean NOx and Oxidation Catalysts and Particulate Traps. SAE Technical Paper Series. 952391.

Hansen, A. D. A. and H. Rosen. 1990. Individual Measurement of the Emission Factor of Aerosol Black Carbon in Automobile Plumes. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40(12): 1654-1657.

Harris, S. J. and M. Maricq. 2001. Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter. Aerosol Science. 32: 749-764.

Harrison, R. M. 1996. Airborne Particulate Matter in the United Kingdom. Third Report of the Quality of Urban Air Review Group. The University of Birmingham.

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Emission Control Technology References

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