Passenger Cars

Two types of standards can be established in Japan, denoted as “mean” and “max” (the “max” standards are shown in brackets in the following tables). The “mean” standards are to be met as a type approval limit and as a production average. The “max” standards are to be met generally as an individual limit in series production and as type approval limit if sales are less than 2000 per vehicle model per year.

Implementation dates in the tables refer to new vehicle models. Current production models are often allowed a delay of up to one year.

Emission standards for new diesel powered cars are listed in Table 1. The test method is the 10-15 mode cycle (which superseded the older 10-mode cycle effective 1991.11 for domestic cars and 1993.04 for imports). The 2005 regulation introduced a new JC08 mode cycle which will be fully phased-in by 2011. Vehicles are tested using 50 ppm S fuel for the 2005 standards.

Table 1
Japanese Emission Standards for Diesel Passenger Cars, g/km
Vehicle WeightDateTestCOHCNOxPM
mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)
< 1250 kg* 198610-15 mode 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.70 (0.98) 
1990 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.50 (0.72) 
1994 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.50 (0.72)0.20 (0.34)
1997 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.55)0.08 (0.14)
2002a0.63 0.12 0.28 0.052
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.14 0.013
2009 0.63 0.024d0.08 0.005
> 1250 kg* 198610-15 mode 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.90 (1.26) 
1992 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.60 (0.84) 
1994 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.60 (0.84)0.20 (0.34)
1998 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.40 (0.55)0.08 (0.14)
2002a0.63 0.12 0.30 0.056
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.15 0.014
2009e 0.63 0.024d0.08 0.005
* - equivalent inertia weight (EIW); vehicle weight of 1265 kg
a - 2002.10 for domestic cars, 2004.09 for imports
b - full implementation by the end of 2005
c - full phase-in by 2011
d - non-methane hydrocarbons
e - 2009.10 for new domestic models; 2010.09 for existing models & imports

Commercial Vehicles

Emission standards for new diesel fueled commercial vehicles are summarized in Table 2 for light vehicles (chassis dynamometer test) and in Table 3 for heavy vehicles (engine dynamometer test).

Light-duty trucks and buses are tested on the 10-15 mode cycle, which will be fully replaced by the JC08 mode test by 2011. The test procedure for heavy-duty engines is the JE05 mode cycle (hot start version). Before 2005, heavy-duty engines were tested over the 13-mode cycle and the 6-mode cycle. Vehicles and engines are tested using 50 ppm S fuel for the 2005 standards.

Table 2
Diesel Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles
GVW ≤ 3500 kg (≤ 2500 kg before 2005)
Vehicle Weight*DateTestUnitCOHCNOxPM
mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)
≤ 1700 kg 198810-15 modeg/km 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.90 (1.26) 
1993 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.60 (0.84)0.20 (0.34)
1997 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.40 (0.55)0.08 (0.14)
2002 0.63 0.12 0.28 0.052
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.140.013
2009 0.63 0.024d0.080.005
> 1700 kg 19886 modeppm 790 (980)510 (670)DI: 380 (500)
IDI: 260 (350)
 
199310-15 modeg/km 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)1.30 (1.82)0.25 (0.43)
1997a2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.70 (0.97)0.09 (0.18)
2003 0.63 0.12 0.49 0.06
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.250.015
2009e 0.63 0.024d0.150.007
* - gross vehicle weight (GVW)
a - 1997: manual transmission vehicles; 1998: automatic transmission vehicles
b - full implementation by the end of 2005
c - full phase-in by 2011
d - non-methane hydrocarbons
e - 2009.10 for new domestic models; 2010.09 for existing models & imports
Table 3
Diesel Emission Standards for Heavy Commercial Vehicles
GVW > 3500 kg (> 2500 kg before 2005)
DateTestUnitCOHCNOxPM
mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)
1988/896 modeppm 790 (980)510 (670)DI: 400 (520)
IDI: 260 (350)
 
199413 modeg/kWh 7.40 (9.20)2.90 (3.80)DI: 6.00 (7.80)
IDI: 5.00 (6.80)
0.70 (0.96)
1997a7.40 (9.20)2.90 (3.80)4.50 (5.80)0.25 (0.49)
2003b2.22 0.87 3.38 0.18
2005cJE05 2.22 0.17d2.0 0.027
2009 2.22 0.17d0.7 0.01
a - 1997: GVW ≤ 3500 kg; 1998: 3500 < GVW ≤ 12000 kg; 1999: GVW > 12000 kg
b - 2003: GVW ≤ 12000 kg; 2004: GVW > 12000 kg
c - full implementation by the end of 2005
d - non-methane hydrocarbons