Regulatory Background

Emission standards for light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines are outlined in Resolution No. 609: Special Technical Regulations on Requirements for Emissions of Hazardous (Polluting) Substances by Vehicles.

Light-Duty Vehicles

Russia adopts European emission standards, which apply to both manufactured and imported vehicles. Implementation dates after which all vehicles must comply to the standard are listed in Table 1. It should be noted that dates related to vehicle emission requirements and the associated fuels do not necessarily align.

Table 1
Emission Requirements for Light-Duty Vehicles
DateRequirement
1999.01Euro 1 (ECE R83.02)
2006.04Euro 2 (ECE R83.03)
2008.01Euro 3 (ECE R83.05 Stage III)
2014.01Euro 4 (ECE R83.05 Stage IV)
2016.01Euro 5

Heavy-Duty Engines

Heavy-duty highway engines are required to meet European emission standards. The implementation schedule is outlined in Table 2. The dates shown are intended to reflect the date at which all new engines must comply with the relevant standard. While standards can be “in-effect” at earlier dates, delays in implantation can lead to long “phase-in” periods for a given emission requirement. For example, while Euro IV came into effect 2010.01, the latest date when Euro III vehicles could be manufactured and sold was extended numerous times. It should be noted that dates related to vehicle emission requirements and the corresponding fuels do not necessarily align.

Table 2
Emission Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines
DateRequirement
1999.01Euro I / Ecological Class 1 (ECE R49.02)
2006.01Euro II / Ecological Class 2 (ECE R49.02 Stage 2)
2008.01Euro III / Ecological Class 3 (ECE R49.04-A)
2013.01Euro IV / Ecological Class 4 (ECE R49.04-B1)
2016.01Euro V / Ecological Class 5 (ECE R49.04-B2 C)

Nonroad Engines

While Russia has adopted some European emission standards for mobile nonroad engines, Table 3, progress has been delayed by disagreements in the Customs Union between Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus, as some of the member countries have been slow in updating emission standards from Stage 0. Russia therefore had to return to Stage 0 in order to adhere to Customs Union protocol. While the Russian government planned to introduce Stage III in January 2014 in Russia, the date has not been officially confirmed. The Russian Agency of Metrology and Technical Regulations (GOST) developed and approved the standard in 2012 but it was not officially published.

Table 3
Emission Requirements for Mobile Nonroad Engines
DateStandardEU Equivalent
2000GOST R41 96-99Stage I (Dir 77/537/EC and Dir 97/68/EC, ECE R24 test)
2014.01aGOST R41 96-2011Stage III
a not officially confirmed