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NOx emissions from heavy-duty engines were reduced by some 70% over the period of 1980s and 1990s. The NOx emission standards that were the driving force behind these changes are illustrated in Figure 1. Through the use of a combination of injection timing retard and charge air cooling, NOx emissions were eventually reduced to below 4 g/bhp-hr, as measured over the U.S. FTP Transient cycle.