Engine Design for PM Control

Magdi K. Khair

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Abstract: PM emissions from heavy-duty engines were reduced by over 90% to meet emission standards of the 1990s. Major PM reductions were realized through improvements in air management, combustion, oil consumption control, and fuel injection.


Since the adoption of the first US1988 emission standard for diesel particulates, through the US1994 standard of 0.1 g/bhp-hr, diesel engine manufacturers were given the task of reducing PM emissions by more than 90% relative to the unregulated pre-1988 levels of above 1 g/bhp-hr. A similar technology progress was needed in the EU to meet the Euro III standard. PM emission standards for heavy-duty engines which were driving the development of new engine technologies are illustrated in Figure 1. It should be noted that in the USA emissions are measured over the FTP Transient cycle, while steady-state tests are used in the EU. Since PM emissions increase with transients, a transient test standard is more stringent than a steady-state test standard of the same numerical value. For this reason, the Euro III standard, even though numerically lower than the US1994, is not necessarily more stringent.