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Emission Standards

China: Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines

Implementation Dates

Implementation dates for the emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles are listed in Table 1.

Table 1
Emission standards implementation dates
StageBeijingShanghaiGuangzhouNationwideInitially Scheduled
Type ApprovalAll Vehicles
China I2000.092001.09
China II2003.092004.01
China IIIPI2010.072010.082009.072009.072010.072007.07
CI2006.012007.012007.072007.012008.012007.01
China IVPI2011.012012.072013.072010.01
CI2011.012009.112010.082010.012015.012010.01
China V2013.02a,c
2015.06b
2014.01a2016.01a2016.04d,e
2017.01e
2017.07b
2012.01
China VI2017.122020
a Public buses and municipal service vehicles
b All vehicles
c Starting 2016.01, DPFs are also required on new public HDDVs (buses and municipal service vehicles)
d Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong and Guangzhou
e Public transportation buses, sanitary and postal vehicles

Emission Standards

China III-VI Standards

With a few exceptions, emission standards for new heavy-duty truck and bus engines are based on the European standards. The legislation for China III-V stages—which are based on Euro III-V, respectively—was adopted in 2005 [2881]. The emission limits are shown in Table 2. Proposed limits for Beijing VI are also included [3292][3293].

Table 2
Emission standards for heavy-duty engines
StageTest CycleCOHCNMHCCH4*NOxPMPNNH3Smoke
g/kWhkWh-1ppm1/m
China IIIESC + ELR2.10.66-5.00.10a0.8
ETC5.45-0.785.00.16a-
China IVESC + ELR1.50.46-3.50.020.5
ETC4.0-0.553.50.03-
China VESC + ELR1.50.46-2.00.0210d0.5
ETC4.0-0.552.00.0310d-
Beijing VIb CI WHSC 1.50.130.400.0108.0×101110
WHTC 4.00.160.460.0106.0×101110
WNTE 2.00.220.480.012
WHVCc4.80.190.550.0127.2×101110
Beijing VIb PI WHSC 1.50.130.410.408.0×1011
WHTC 4.00.160.500.466.0×1011
WNTE 2.00.220.690.48
WHVCc4.80.190.600.557.2×1011
* Applicable only to gas engines
a 0.13/0.21 (ESC/ETC) for engines < 0.75 L per cylinder and rated speed > 3000 rpm
b Proposed Beijing VI limits [2895][3293]
c Some heavy-duty vehicles can be chassis certified instead of engine certified [3292]
d Cycle average; 25 ppm maximum
At the China I/II stage (not shown in the table), the test was ECE R-49 or the Chinese 9-mode.

The following provisions apply to emissions of nitrogen dioxide and ammonia:

  • NO2 requirements: OEMs are required to report tailpipe NO2 concentration and NO2 increase level if an oxidation catalyst-based aftertreatment system is used, such as DOC, POC, DPF or NAC.
  • NH3 slip limit: No limit for China IV. For China V and later, as shown in Table 2.

Supplemental China IV and V Requirements

Supplemental requirements have been adopted to prevent excess NOx emissions during low-speed, urban driving conditions from some heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) type approved to Euro IV and V equivalent standards. These requirements include:

  • World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) limits—applicable in Beijing and nationally, and
  • PEMS testing requirements—applicable in Beijing.

The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) released two local standards in February 2013 and the Ministry of Environmental Protection adopted a national standard in January 2014. These standards are supplemental to China IV and V standards and apply to China IV and V vehicles with Gross Vehicle Weight above 3,500 kg, registered in Beijing and nationally, respectively.

WHTC Limits. One of the Beijing standards [2895] implemented March 1, 2013 and the national standard [2897][3400] implemented January 1, 2015, require China IV and V engines to be tested over the WHTC in addition to the ETC (in Europe, testing over the WHTC is not required until the Euro VI stage). The Beijing standards apply to diesel and gas fueled engines while the national standards apply to only diesel fueled engines. Both cold-start and hot-start tests are required, with results weighted 14% and 86%, respectively. Table 3 and Table 4 provide the WHTC cycle limits for the China IV and V stages. Most of the limit values are equal to the Euro IV/V ETC values except those for NOx emissions.

Table 3
Beijing WHTC emission limits for diesel and gas China IV and V engines, g/kWh
StageDateCONMHCCH4aNOxPMb
China IV2013.034.00.551.13.7 (3.5)c0.03
China V2013.07d4.00.551.12.8 (2.0)c0.03
a Only gas engines
b Not applicable to gas engines
c ETC cycle limits shown in parentheses
d Buses and sanitary vehicles; other vehicles upon availability of suitable fuel in the regions surrounding Beijing
Table 4
National WHTC emission limits for diesel China IV and V engines, g/kWh
StageDateCONMHCNOxPM
China IV2015.014.00.554.7 (3.5)a0.03
China Vin line with China V4.00.552.8 (2.0)a0.03
a ETC cycle limits shown in parentheses

PEMS Testing. The second Beijing standard [2896], implemented July 1, 2013, establishes in-use, complete vehicle Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) testing requirements for manufacturers to prove that real-world emissions do not overly exceed the type approval limit values. There are two options that manufacturers can choose from to calculate emissions values from PEMS testing: the work-based window method and the not-to-exceed (NTE) method.

Emission Durability

Emission durability requirements, including the engine useful life and the minimum aftertreatment testing periods, are shown in Table 5. The aftertreatment periods according to HJ 438-2008 are mandatory for type approval and production conformity, while GB 20890-2007 provides a guideline to conduct aftertreatment durability testing during product development.

Table 5
Emission durability requirements
CategoryUseful LifeAftertreatment Testing
Ch I-VCh VIGB 20890-2007HJ 438-2008
M1 (GVW > 3.5 t)
M2
100,000 km/5 yrs50,000 km100,000 km
M3 (GVW ≤ 7.5 t)
N2 and N3 (GVW ≤ 16 t)
200,000 km/6 yrs300,000 km/6 yrs60,000 km125,000 km
M3 (GVW > 7.5 t)
N3 (GVW > 16 t)
500,000 km/7 yrs700,000 km/7 yrs80,000 km167,000 km

The GB 20890-2007 standard recommends that aftertreatment testing be conducted on-vehicle, over the China Heavy-Duty Durability Cycle—Vehicle (C-HDD-V). Alternatively, an engine based durability test can be conducted over the China Heavy-Duty Durability Cycle—Engine (C-HDD-E).