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Emission Standards

China: Cars and Light Trucks

Background

Chinese emission standards for new passenger cars and light-duty commercial vehicles up to proposed China 6 are based on European regulations. Light-duty vehicle categories are based on the EU classification with some changes:

  • Type 1 vehicles: M1 vehicles for no more than 6 passengers including driver, and GVW ≤ 2.5 ton,
  • Type 2 vehicles: Other light-duty vehicles (including N1 light commercial vehicles) further divided into three classes based on the reference mass (RM):
    • Class I: RM ≤ 1305 kg
    • Class II: 1305 kg < RM ≤ 1760 kg
    • Class III: RM > 1760 kg

Implementation Dates

The implementation schedule is listed in Table 1. The nationwide dates generally refer to new type approvals—first registration of existing vehicle models is typically allowed for one more year. The nationwide China 5 regulation [2941] provides one implementation date, applicable to both new type approvals and to first registration. Beijing has had a ban on the sale and registration of light-duty diesel vehicles since 2000.

Table 1
Implementation dates of emission standards for light-duty vehicles
StageDateRegionCommentsReference
China 12000.01 (2000.07†)NationwideEuro 1
China 2 2002.08BeijingEuro 2
2003.03Shanghai
PI: 2004.07a (2005.07†)
CI: 2003.09
Nationwide
China 3 2005.12BeijingEuropean OBD from 2006.12Euro 3
2006.10GuangzhouWith European OBD
2007.01ShanghaiWith European OBD
2007.07NationwideEOBD: Type 1 2008.07; Type 2 2010.07
China 4 2008.03BeijingEuro 4
2009.11Shanghai
PI: 2011.07
CI: 2015.01
Nationwide
China 5 2013.02BeijingEuro 5
2014.05Shanghai
2016.04b,c
2017.01b
2018.01d
Nationwide
China 6a2019.01NationwideEuro 6
China 6b2022.01Nationwide
PI - positive ignition (gasoline, natural gas); CI - compression ignition (diesel)
† production conformity
a first registration
b For public buses, sanitary and postal vehicles
c 11 Eastern provinces only (Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan)
d All vehicles

Emission Standards

Emission limits up to China 5 are shown in Table 2 for gasoline vehicles and in Table 3 for diesel vehicles.

Table 2
Emission standards for vehicles with positive ignition engines
StageCategoryClassCOHCNMHCNOxPMPN
g/km#/km
China 3 Type 1 2.30 0.20 - 0.15 -
Type 2 I 2.30 0.20 - 0.15 -
II 4.17 0.25 - 0.18 -
III 5.22 0.29 - 0.21 -
China 4 Type 1 1.00 0.10 - 0.08 -
Type 2 I 1.00 0.10 - 0.08 -
II 1.81 0.13 - 0.10 -
III 2.27 0.16 - 0.11 -
China 5 Type 1 1.00 0.100 0.068 0.060 0.0045a
Type 2 I 1.00 0.100 0.068 0.060 0.0045a
II 1.81 0.13 0.068 0.075 0.0045a
III 2.27 0.16 0.068 0.082 0.0045a
a - applies only to direct injection positive ignition engines
Table 3
Emission standards for vehicles with compression ignition engines
StageCategoryClassCOHC+NOxNOxPMPN
g/km#/km
China 3 Type 1 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.050
Type 2 I 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.050
II 0.80 0.72 0.65 0.070
III 0.95 0.86 0.78 0.100
China 4 Type 1 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025
Type 2 I 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025
II 0.63 0.39 0.33 0.040
III 0.74 0.46 0.39 0.060
China 5 Type 1 0.50 0.230 0.180 0.00456×1011
Type 2 I 0.50 0.230 0.180 0.00456×1011
II 0.63 0.295 0.235 0.00456×1011
III 0.74 0.350 0.280 0.00456×1011

Proposed China 6 standards are fuel neutral and the same limits apply for gasoline and diesel vehicles, Table 4 [3399].

Table 4
Proposed China 6 emission standards
StageCategoryClassCOHCNMHCNOxN2OPMPN
g/km#/km
China 6aType 10.5000.1000.0680.0600.0200.00456×1011
Type 2I0.5000.1000.0680.0600.0200.00456×1011
II0.6300.1300.0900.0750.0250.00456×1011
III0.7400.1600.1080.0820.0300.00456×1011
China 6bType 10.5000.0500.0350.0350.0200.00306×1011
Type 2I0.5000.0500.0350.0350.0200.00306×1011
II0.6300.0650.0450.0450.0250.00306×1011
III0.7400.0800.0550.0500.0300.00306×1011

Some important details of the proposed China 6 standard include:

  • China 6b targets reductions of 50% for hydrocarbons, 40% for NOx and 33% for PM over Euro 6 levels
  • RDE requirements apply to China 6b vehicle with NOx and PN conformity factor of 2.1
  • Testing is to be carried out over the WLTP cycle
  • Unlike Euro 6, an N2O limit is applied
  • China 6 OBD requirements are based on California OBD II regulations

In 2015, Beijing proposed standards based on US Tier 3 regulations, Table 5 [3294]. These proposed standards appear set to be withdrawn when the China 6 proposal is finalized.

Table 5
Proposed Beijing 6 emission standards for vehicles with positive ignition engines [3294]
StageCategoryRMCycleCOHC+NOxPM
kgmg/km
Beijing 6 M1, M2, M3FTP75100043.51.86
N16.20
M1, M2≤2720US06600074.66.20
M3, N1>272012.4
M1, M2, M3, N1SC03200043.5-
M1, M2, M3, N1HWFET-43.5-

New gasoline vehicles up to and including China 5 must also meet an evaporative emission limit of 2 g/test (SHED). China 6 vehicles would see this reduced to 0.70 g for Type 1 and Type 2, Category I vehicles, 0.90 for Type 2, Category II vehicles and 1.20 g for Type 2, Category III vehicles [3399].

Durability requirements are 80,000 km for China 3, and 100,000 km for China 4 and 160,000 km for China 6. The Beijing 6 proposal would have required durability of 200,000 km [3294].