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Abstract: Low temperature combustion strategies can be classified as port mixing systems, early direct injection systems, and late direct injection systems. A number of LTC combustion systems have been proposed, including the PREDIC, HiMICS, UNIBUS, NADI, EPA Clean Diesel Combustion, Nissan MK and others. Some of the strategies have been introduced in commercial diesel engines.
There are a variety approaches to implementing low temperature combustion (LTC), as discussed in the LTC paper. Based on the fuel injection type and timing, LTC strategies can be classified as follows:
Port mixing systems ,
Early direct injection systems, with injection after BDC of the compression stroke but well before TDC , and
Late direct injection systems, with injection either just before or just after TDC .
Some classification further break down the late injection systems into those that use “conventional” injection timing just before TDC and those with injection occurring after TDC. These strategies are summarized graphically in Figure 1.