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Technical & scientific resources on the web: Energy, fuels, engines, and emissions

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Life Cycle GHG Emission Study on the Use of LNG as Marine Fuel

Report prepared by thinkstep AG for SEA\LNG Limited and Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel Limited (SGMF), 2019

The use of LNG as marine fuel is claimed to provide a GHG reduction potential (well-to-wake basis) ranging from 7-21% compared with petroleum-based fuels. The benefit is highly dependent on the engine technology and the type of reference fuel (distillate or residual) used in the comparison. Methane emissions from the gas engines used in the estimate range from 0.05 to 3.84 g/kWh. The BTE values of the low speed and medium speed gas engines are up to 1.5% higher than the diesel engines they are compared to.
Enabling Technologies for Heavy-Duty Vehicles – Cummins 55BTE

Final Scientific / Technical Report: DoE Program Award Number: DE-EE0007281, 2018

The Cummins 55% BTE (55BTE) program has completed the planned technical work on the project. This work includes the planned engine system demonstration in pursuit of the goal of demonstrating a peak system brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of 55%. A BTE of 54% was demonstrated and a revised path is identified showing how the system could be improved to reach 55% BTE with some minor modification to the engine system. The changes in the revised path not completed due to time and money constraints placed on the program. The combustion system was re-designed for a shorter combustion duration and lower in-cylinder heat loss through optimization of the fuel injection rate shape, number of spray holes, piston bowl shape, compression ratio, piston oil cooling, heat flow through the piston and in-cylinder charge motion. The air handling system was re-designed to provide cooled EGR at virtually no pumping penalty through implementation of a dual loop EGR system and reduction of EGR system pressure drop.
Decarbonisation of transport: options and challenges

European Academies' Science Advisory Council (EASAC), 2019

The report reviews options for reducing GHG emissions from European transport. EASAC recommends a combination of transitional measures for the next 10-15 years and sustainable measures for the long term, based on a three level policy framework: avoid and contain demand for transport services; shift passengers and freight to transport modes with lower emissions (trains, buses and ships); and improve performance through vehicle design, more efficient powertrains and replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy carriers including low-carbon electricity, hydrogen and synthetic fuels.
RIA Electrification Cost Challenge Report

UK's Railway Industry Association, 2019

Better planning of projects, wider adoption of best practice and a long-term commitment to a rolling program could reduce the cost of overhead line electrification by between 33% and 50%. Conventional electrification remains the optimal technical solution for an intensively-used railway, despite the introduction of new technologies such as ‘bimode, trimode, battery and hydrogen’ trains. It should therefore be the first consideration in any move to decarbonise the railway by 2040. The report argues that the significant increase in cost on the Great Western Electrification Program should be seen as a one-off, caused by an unrealistic program of work and unpreparedness in using novel technologies resulting in poor productivity. The government had authorized a ‘glut’ of electrification projects following a 20-year hiatus. This ‘feast and famine’ approach had also impacted on costs, with up to eight schemes competing for limited resources at one stage.
Ultra-Low Emission Natural Gas 12-Liter Engine for On-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

CEC-500-2019-002, 2019

The final report for Cummins' Low NOx 12-Liter Natural Gas Engine Development project conducted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The ISX12N represents an upgrade to the ISX12 G production engine, with an improved three-way catalyst, a closed crankcase ventilation system, and optimized engine controls that improve upon the base design and meet state engine certification goals. The project team also developed heavy-duty on-board diagnostics to meet California Air Resources Board requirements. The engine met the project objectives by: demonstrating a peak rating of 400 hp and 1,450 ft-lb, reducing ammonia emissions by more than 50% compared to the ISX12 G to just under 40 ppm, achieving about 15% better fuel efficiency than a similar model year 2010 ISX12 diesel engine over the FTP cycle, and meeting the NOx emissions target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr.
Shell LNG-Studie "Verflüssigtes Erdgas – Neue Energie für Schiff und Lkw?" (Liquefied Natural Gas – New Energy for Vessels and Trucks?)

Shell, Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and Technischen Universität Hamburg (TUHH) report, 2019

Assuming that by 2040 there will be 6,000 (mainly) large LNG ships worldwide and 480,000 LNG trucks in the EU, greenhouse gas emissions from shipping could be reduced by 132 million tonnes by 2040 and from heavy trucks by up to 4.7 million tonnes, depending on engine technology. With a 30% share of renewable LNG, an additional reduction of around 20% would be possible for trucks. Methane slip is addressed in Euro VI legislation with a 0.5 g/kWh methane emission limit. Methane emissions from marine are not currently addressed adequately and methane emission reductions are required. Report is in German.
Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 37

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2019

A statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the US Department of Energy. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use.
Compilation and Assessment of Lab Samples from EGCS Washwater Discharge on Carnival ships

Clean Shipping Alliance 2020 Technical Conference, London Marriott Hotel County Hall, 21st February 2019, 2019

A study carried out by Carnival Corp. on washwater from scrubbers on cruise ships shows that it compares well with numerous water quality standards. The three-year study collected 281 wash water samples from 53 EGCS-equipped cruise ships and then assessed against 54 different test parameters by ISO accredited independent laboratories. All the resulting laboratory analysis reports were then evaluated by DNV GL’s Maritime Advisory Services and the data compared against various water quality standards, after first confirming that the samples analysed were consistently well within the allowable IMO criteria and regulatory limits.
Update of maritime greenhouse gas emission projections

CE Delft, January 2019 Publication code: 19.7S18.009, 2019

The Third IMO Greenhouse Gas Study 2014 presented emission projections from shipping that showed increases of 50-250% in 2050 relative to 2012. Using GDP projections from the OECD, this work estimates that an increase of 20% is more realistic.
The potential for cost-effective air emission reductions from international shipping through designation of further Emission Control Areas in EU waters with focus on the Mediterranean Sea

IIASA Research Report, 2018

IIASA has completed a study on the potential for cost-effective air emission reductions from international shipping through designation of further Emission Control Areas on the European Seas with a focus on the Mediterranean Sea.
MAN B&W Two-stroke Marine Engines Emission Project Guide for Marpol Annex VI Regulations, 9th Edition

MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2018

The intention of the Emission Project Guide is to give sufficient information to decide and design solutions for emission reductions at the initial stage of a project involving MAN B&W two-stroke marine engines. The Emission Project Guide is divided in two parts: Part 1 NOx reduction – IMO Tier III solutions and Part 2 SOx reduction – exhaust gas cleaning system
The Future for Hydrogen Trains in the UK

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2019

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers recommends that: 1) the UK Government rethinks the cancellation of electrification programmes, 2) the industry encourages the development and deployment of hydrogen trains and their fueling and servicing facilities, and 3) hydrogen train technology is developed in industrial areas where hydrogen production already occurs, and can support the wider transport system.
Can Natural Gas Reduce Emissions from Transport?

Imperial College London, Sustainable Gas Institute (SGI), 2019

Natural gas as a transport fuel has the potential to reduce GHG emissions in trucks and ships by ~16% and ~10%, respectively. These levels are not sufficient to meet global GHG emissions goals. Air pollution emissions can be reduced significantly in shipping by switching to natural gas, while air pollution benefits in trucks are reduced given improvements in modern diesel engines.
Natural Gas as a Fuel for Heavy Goods Vehicles

Imperial College London, Sustainable Gas Institute (SGI), 2019

The two main parameters affecting the overall well-to-wheel (WTW) GHG emission of natural gas HGVs compared to diesel are the fuel consumption relative to diesel and methane leakages across the supply chain. Methane leakage rates are estimated to be 1.6% nominally, with a range of 0.1% to 9.3%.
Natural Gas as a Ship Fuel: Assessment of Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollutant Reduction Potential

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2019

This study uses a life cycle assessment to compare emissions from domestic and imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), and heavy-fuel oil (HFO) for marine shipping. The findings show that only high-pressure dual-fuel (HPDF) engines robustly reduce well- to-wake GHG emissions by 10% compared with their HFO-fueled counterparts. For smaller vessels the use of medium speed low-pressure dual-fuel (MS-LPDF) and lean burn spark ignition (LBSI) gas engines cannot reliably reduce GHG emissions due to the high levels of methane slip from these engines.
Electric vehicles in Europe from 2010 to 2017: is full-scale commercialisation beginning?

JRC Science for Policy Report, 2018

In 2017, almost 300,000 electric passenger cars were registered in Europe, against around 1,400 in 2010. The highest numbers were registered in Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, France and the UK. The e-vehicle market is almost equally divided between battery-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid cars. Despite the increasing numbers in market penetration, barriers to mass market uptake of e-vehicles still exist, including the lack of publicly accessible recharging points, the cost of electric vehicles, and issues linked to the driving range and high maintenance costs.
Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives

European Environment Agency, 2018

Battery electric cars emit less greenhouse gases and air pollutants over their entire life cycle than petrol and diesel cars, according to a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report. The result of the comparison is less favorable for electric cars when looking at the current impacts of their production on ecosystems and the toxicity of the materials involved. These impacts are mostly due to the extraction and processing of copper, nickel and critical raw materials.
Use of remote-sensing technology for vehicle emissions monitoring and control

The International Council on Clean Transportation, 2018

A concise introduction to the use of remote sensing in regulating and controlling pollution from on-road vehicles.
Coal 2018: Analysis and forecasts to 2023

International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 2018

After two years of decline, global coal demand grew by 1% in 2017 to 7585 Mt as stronger global economic growth increased both industrial output and electricity use. Driven by strong coal power generation in China and India, coal demand is expected to grow again in 2018. In particular, global coal power generation increased by over 250 TWh, or around 3%, and accounted for about 40% of the additional power generation worldwide. Coal kept its share in the power mix at 38% after some years of decline.
Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration

US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018

To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, “negative emissions technologies” (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change—according to a new report by the National Academies of Sciences. Four land-based NETs are ready for large-scale deployment at costs competitive with emissions mitigation strategies, the report says. These technologies include reforestation; changes in forest management; changes in agricultural practices that enhance soil carbon storage; and bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration. However, these four NETs cannot yet provide enough carbon removal at reasonable cost without substantial unintended harm.
Charging the Future: Challenges and Opportunities for Electric Vehicle Adoption

Harvard Kennedy School: Belfer Center, 2018

Electric vehicles (EVs) have advanced significantly this decade, owing in part to decreasing battery costs. Yet EVs remain more costly than gasoline fueled vehicles over their useful life. This paper analyzes the additional advances that will be needed—such as advances in battery technology and charging infrastructure—if electric vehicles are to significantly penetrate the passenger vehicle fleet.
The Future of Petrochemicals

International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 2018

Petrochemicals—components derived from oil and gas that are used in all sorts of daily products such as plastics, fertilizers, packaging, clothing, digital devices, medical equipment, detergents and tires—are becoming the largest drivers of global oil demand, in front of cars, planes and trucks.
Decarbonization Potential of Electrofuels in the European Union

The International Council on Clean Transportation, 2018

Electrofuels, also known as “power-to-liquids,” “power-to-gas,” “e-fuels” and “e-gas,” can deliver greenhouse gas savings compared to petroleum when they are produced using low-carbon electricity. This study updates a prior analysis on the economic viability of electrofuels in the EU and assesses the lifecycle GHG performance of these fuels.
Global Gas Report 2018

Snam, Italy, 2018

Developed by the International Gas Union, Boston Consulting Group and Snam, this report assesses the role played by natural gas in the global energy mix and the opportunity it offers to meet growing energy demand.
Shale Reality Check: Drilling Into the U.S. Government’s Rosy Projections for Shale Gas & Tight Oil Production Through 2050

Post Carbon Institute, Corvallis, Oregon, 2018

A report by David Hughes assesses the viability of the US EIA projections of the future shale oil and gas production and concludes that the official figures are overly optimistic. According the report, the EIA mischaracterizes the source of recent productivity improvements (by assuming it’s mostly technology, not high-grading); extrapolates recent well productivity improvements far into the future, even though evidence suggests this is unwise; assumes that large areas that are not currently being drilled will be highly productive; and ignores price and profitability.
Black carbon emissions and fuel use in global shipping, 2015

The International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, USA, 2017

An updated global inventory of black carbon emissions from the global shipping sector.
Fuel Consumption Standards for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in India

Policy Update, ICCT, Washington, USA, 2017

A summary of Indian fuel-efficiency standards for commercial heavy-duty vehicles that were published in August 2017.
Concawe Market Fuel Survey: 2015-2016

Concawe, 2017

Concawe conducted a market fuel survey on petrol and diesel qualities, taking samples from seventeen European countries during mid-2015 – early 2016. A total of 244 samples (100 petrol and 144 diesel) were sampled—petrol samples were collected in the summer of 2015 and the diesels were sampled in the winter of 2016. The report summarizes the data by country and illustrates the data in charts.
Roadmap to a de-fossilized powertrain

Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany, 2017

A study by Bosch examines the potential of e-fuels—synthetic liquid fuels produced using renewable electrical energy—to reduce GHG emissions from transportation.
EMSA Study on the use of Fuel Cells in Shipping

European Maritime Safety Agency, Lisbon, Portugal, 2017

A study released by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) in partnership with DNV-GL identifies the leading fuel cell technologies with potential for maritime applications. The study reviews 23 maritime fuel cell projects conducted over the past 16 years.
Software Defined Emissions: A hacker’s review of Dieselgate

Chaos Computer Club, Hamburg, Germany, 2017

A technical talk on how to reverse-engineer electronic control units in order to document what was left apparently intentionally undocumented by the vendor—including how Volkswagen tweaked their cycle detection code while already being investigated by the EPA, how different the Volkswagen approach is really to the rest of the industry, and some trivia on how the “acoustic function“ got its name.
Ultra-Low NOx Natural Gas Vehicle Evaluation: ISL G NZ

University of California Riverside, 2016

A report by the University of California-Riverside finds that the 8.9 L Cummins Westport ISL G Near Zero natural gas engine exceeds or meets the certification emission standards over a full range of duty cycles.
Third Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emission Reduction Program

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2016

A detailed description of the US EPA DERA program to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines; the third report submitted by the EPA to Congress.
Methane and CO2 Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain

Imperial College London, Sustainable Gas Institute (SGI), 2015

When natural gas is compared to to other fossil fuels such as coal, its combustion generates approximately half as much CO2 emissions. However, natural gas is mainly composed of methane, which is itself a strong greenhouse gas, and is emitted at different stages along the natural gas supply chain. The range of CH4-only emission estimates is from 0.2% to 10% of produced methane.
Second Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emissions Reduction Program

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2012

A detailed description of the US EPA DERA program to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines; the second report submitted by the EPA to Congress.
Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emissions Reduction Program

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2009

A detailed description of the US EPA DERA program to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines; the first report submitted by the EPA to Congress.
Method 5040: Diesel Particulate Matter (as Elemental Carbon)

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), 4th Edition, 2003

NIOSH standard method for determination of diesel particulate exposures as elemental carbon.

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