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Emission Standards

Brazil: Heavy-Duty Engines

Regulatory Background

Brazilian emission regulations for heavy-duty engines have been adopted as a series of increasingly more stringent tiers, designated PROCONVE P-1, P-2, P-3, etc. The emission standards are applicable to motor vehicles for the transportation of passengers and/or goods, with maximum gross vehicle weight higher than 3,856 kg or the vehicle curb weight higher than 2,720 kg.

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The smoke control or, indirectly, particulate matter control began in 1987 with the adoption of opacity limit (k > 2.5) throughout the maximum torque curve of diesel engines. Noise control began in 1994. Emission standards were adopted in a series of steps:

  • PROCONVE P-1 voluntary standards were implemented in 1990, followed by P-2 mandatory standards in 1993, P-3 standards in 1994 and P-4 standards in 1998. These standards were also applicable to engines used in light trucks.
  • PROCONVE P-5 standards, based on Euro III and including transient testing, were phased-in over 2004-2006.
  • PROCONVE P-6 standards, based on Euro IV, were scheduled to become effective from 2009. However, because low sulfur diesel fuel was not available, the P-5 stage remained in effect until the end of 2011.
  • PROCONVE P-7 standards, Resolution Conama 403/2008, were adoped in 2008 [2619] with implementation from 2012. The standards are based on Euro V regulations.

Emission Standards

Model Year 1993-2005

Emission standards for new MY 1993-2005 diesel fueled trucks and buses are summarized in Table 1. The same standards also applied to light-duty truck engines. All truck and bus engines, including those used in light trucks, were certified on an engine dynamometer (test cycle ECE R-49).

Table 1
Emission Standards for Diesel-Fueled Trucks and Buses
TierYearCOHCNOxPMReference Standard
City BusAllg/kWh
P-11990†143.5018.0--
P-2199311.22.4514.4-Euro 0
P-3199419964.91.239.00.4aEuro I*
P-4199820004.01.17.00.15bEuro II
† - voluntary standards
* - production conformity limit
a - multiply by a factor of 1.7 for engines below 85 kW
b - 0.25 g/kWh for engines up to 0.7 liter, rated speed above 3000 rpm

In addition to the above standards, new engines have to meet the following free acceleration smoke limits (effective March 94):

  • 0.83/m (30 HSU) for naturally aspirated engines
  • 1.19/m (40 HSU) for turbocharged engines

Model Year 2006 and Later

Emission standards applicable to heavy-duty diesel and gas engines since 2006 are summarized in Table 2. Diesel engines are tested over both the ESC and ETC tests, while gas engines are tested over the ETC test only (see also EU regulations).

Table 2
Emission Standards for HD Diesel And Gas Engines
(Durability: 160,000 km/5 years)
TierDateTestCOTHCNMHCNOxPM†Smoke
g/kWhm-1
P-51.1.20061,2,3ESC/ELR2.10.66-5.00.10 or 0.1350.8
ETC45.45-0.785.00.16 or 0.215-
P-61.1.20096ESC/ELR1.50.46-3.50.020.5
ETC4.0-0.553.50.03-
P-71.1.2012ESC/ELR1.50.46-2.00.020.5
ETC4.0-0.552.00.03-
† Applicable to diesel engines only
(1) 1.1.2004 for urban buses or 60% of annual production of urban buses (100% by 01/01/2005); in that case, manufacturers must produce at least 60% observing PROCONVE P-5 for the non-urban bus HD annual production
(2) 1.1.2005 for micro-buses
(3) 1.1.2005 40% of production/year of HD (except urban bus and micro-bus) per manufacturer
(4) diesel vehicles without catalysts or particulate filters can be tested over ESC cycle only
(5) For engines of less than 0.75 dm3 swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3000 rpm
(6) PROCONVE P-6 standards were never enforced (because low sulfur fuel was not available), P-5 standards remained in effect through the end of 2011