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Emission Standards

Brazil: Heavy-Duty Engines

Regulatory Background

Brazilian emission regulations for heavy-duty engines have been adopted as a series of increasingly more stringent tiers, designated PROCONVE P-1, P-2, P-3, etc. The emission standards are applicable to motor vehicles for the transportation of passengers and/or goods, with maximum gross vehicle weight higher than 3,856 kg or the vehicle curb weight higher than 2,720 kg.

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The smoke control or, indirectly, particulate matter control began in 1987 with the adoption of opacity limit (k > 2.5) throughout the maximum torque curve of diesel engines. Noise control began in 1994. Emission standards were adopted in a series of steps:

  • PROCONVE P-1 voluntary standards were implemented in 1990, followed by P-2 mandatory standards in 1993, P-3 standards in 1994 and P-4 standards in 1998. These standards were also applicable to engines used in light trucks.
  • PROCONVE P-5 standards, based on Euro III and including transient testing, were phased-in over 2004-2006.
  • PROCONVE P-6 standards, based on Euro IV, were scheduled to become effective from 2009. However, because low sulfur diesel fuel was not available, the P-5 stage remained in effect until the end of 2011.
  • PROCONVE P-7 standards, Resolution Conama 403/2008, were adopted in 2008 [2619] with implementation from 2012. The standards are based on Euro V regulations.
  • PROCONVE P-8 standards, based on Euro VI, were adopted in 2018 with implementation from 2022 [4257][4258].

1993-2005: P-1 through P-4 Emission Standards

Emission standards for new MY 1993-2005 diesel fueled trucks and buses are summarized in Table 1. The same standards also applied to light-duty truck engines. All truck and bus engines, including those used in light trucks, were certified on an engine dynamometer (test cycle ECE R-49).

Table 1
Emission standards for diesel-fueled trucks and buses
TierYearCOHCNOxPMReference Standard
City BusAllg/kWh
P-2199311.22.4514.4-Euro 0
P-3199419964. I*
P-4199820004. II
† voluntary standards
* production conformity limit
a multiply by a factor of 1.7 for engines below 85 kW
b 0.25 g/kWh for engines up to 0.7 liter, rated speed above 3000 rpm

In addition to the above standards, new engines have to meet the following free acceleration smoke limits (effective March 94):

  • 0.83/m (30 HSU) for naturally aspirated engines
  • 1.19/m (40 HSU) for turbocharged engines

2006-2021: P-5 through P-7 Emission Standards

Emission standards applicable to heavy-duty diesel and gas engines since 2006 are summarized in Table 2. Diesel engines are tested over both the ESC and ETC tests, while gas engines are tested over the ETC test only (see also EU regulations).

Table 2
Emission standards for heavy-duty diesel and gas engines
(Durability: 160,000 km/5 years)
P-520061,2,3ESC/ELR2.10.66-5.00.10 or 0.1350.8
ETC45.45-0.785.00.16 or 0.215-
† Applicable to diesel engines only
1 2004 for urban buses or 60% of annual production of urban buses (100% by 01/01/2005); in that case, manufacturers must produce at least 60% observing PROCONVE P-5 for the non-urban bus HD annual production
2 2005 for micro-buses
3 2005 40% of production/year of HD (except urban bus and micro-bus) per manufacturer
4 diesel vehicles without catalysts or particulate filters can be tested over ESC cycle only
5 For engines of less than 0.75 dm3 swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3000 rpm
6 PROCONVE P-6 standards were never enforced (because low sulfur fuel was not available), P-5 standards remained in effect through the end of 2011

2022 and Later: P-8 Emission Standards

The P-8 standards apply to all new on-road passenger and freight vehicles with compression-ignition or spark-ignition engines and weighing at least 3,856 kg. The standards go into effect on 1 January 2022 for new type approvals, and on 1 January 2023 for all new sales and registrations [4257][4258].

The P-8 standards are based on Euro VI regulations—they introduce the Euro VI test cycles and testing requirements, off-cycle emission (OCE) and in-service conformity (ISC) testing, as well as particle number (PN) emission limits for diesel engines. The latter are expected to force the use of diesel particulate filters on all heavy-duty diesel engines. P-8 emission limits are summarized in Table 3.

Table 2
PROCONVE P-8 emission standards for heavy-duty engines
OCE (WNTE)2000220--600-16-
ISC (PEMS)6000240240750690---
a Applicable to compression-ignition (diesel) engines only
b Applicable to spark-ignition (gasoline and natural gas) engines only
c Applicable to engines with SCR aftertreatment and to natural gas engines