The ESC test cycle was introduced together with the ETC (European Transient Cycle) and the ELR (European Load Response) tests by the Euro III emission regulation—Directive 1999/96/EC, effective year 2000—for emission measurement from heavy-duty diesel engines . The ESC is a 13-mode, steady-state procedure that replaced the R-49 test. Initially, the test was also referred to as OICA/ACEA cycle.
The engine is tested on an engine dynamometer over a sequence of steady-state modes (Table 1, Figure 1). The engine must be operated for the prescribed time in each mode, completing engine speed and load changes in the first 20 seconds. The specified speed shall be held to within ±50 rpm and the specified torque shall be held to within ±2% of the maximum torque at the test speed. Emissions are measured during each mode and averaged over the cycle using a set of weighting factors. Particulate matter emissions are sampled on one filter over the 13 modes. The final emission results are expressed in g/kWh.
|Mode||Engine Speed||Load, %||Weight, %||Duration|
|1||Low idle||0||15||4 minutes|
Figure 1. European Stationary Cycle (ESC)
The engine speeds are defined as follows:
- The high speed nhi is determined by calculating 70% of the declared maximum net power. The highest engine speed where this power value occurs (i.e. above the rated speed) on the power curve is defined as nhi.
- The low speed nlo is determined by calculating 50% of the declared maximum net power. The lowest engine speed where this power value occurs (i.e. below the rated speed) on the power curve is defined as nlo.
- The engine speeds A, B, and C to be used during the test are then calculated from the following formulas:
A = nlo + 0.25(nhi - nlo)
B = nlo + 0.50(nhi - nlo)
C = nlo + 0.75(nhi - nlo)
During emission certification testing, the certification personnel may request additional random testing modes within the cycle control area (Figure 1). Maximum emission at these extra modes are determined by interpolation between results from the neighboring regular test modes.
The ESC test is characterized by high average load factors and very high exhaust gas temperatures.