Vehicle and engine emission standards are adopted at the federal level in China by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP). In addition to National Standards, which are mandatory nationwide, Environmental Standards may apply to industries that have an impact on the quality of the environment, and Local Standards may be issued by local governments. The following naming conventions (prefixes) apply to the various types of regulations and standards:
- GB—mandatory national standards,
- GB/T—recommended national standards,
- HJ—environmental standards,
- HJ/T—recommended environmental standards,
- BJ (Beijing) and SH (Shanghai) are example local standards.
First emission regulations for motor vehicles became effective in the 1990s [Regulation GB 14761]. Chinese standards are based on European regulations, which are being adopted with a certain time delay.
Large metropolitan areas, including Beijing and Shanghai, have adopted more stringent regulations on an accelerated schedule, ahead of the rest of the country. Beijing implemented Euro 4 standards for light-duty vehicles in 2008 (the year of the Beijing Olympics) and plans to introduce Euro 5-based standards from 2012.
Regulated Engines and Vehicles
Emission standards have been adopted for the following categories of new engines and/or vehicles:
Furthermore, fuel consumption standards for light-duty vehicles have been effective since 2005.